The tooth is not a priority part in human being, only when the pain obstructs, the importance of it is realised. There are no precautionary steps taken to keep the teeth healthy when compared to the other parts of the body. In most of the health check packages in India, a dental check is not considered / covered.

Significant problems that occur in Dentistry:

  • Gum diseases – Gingivitis & Periodontitis
  • Cavities/Tooth Decay
  • Oral Cancer/Mouth Cancer
  • Fluorosis Overview – Percentage
  • Malocclusion
  • Tongue diseases like hairy tongue

Gum Diseases

I. Gingivitis

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums, usually caused by a bacterial infection. If left untreated, it can become a severe infection known as periodontitis. Gingivitis and periodontitis are significant causes of tooth loss in adults

  1. Symptoms: are Swollen or puffy Gums. Dusky red or dark red gums. While brushing, the gums bleed easily and have tender gums.
  2. Susceptible persons: smoking or chewing tobacco, diabetes, consuming certain medications (oral contraceptives, steroids, anticonvulsants, calcium channel blockers, and chemotherapy),crooked teeth, dental appliances that fit poorly, broken fillings
    ,pregnancy, genetic factors & compromised immunity (such as with HIV/AIDS)
  3. Preventive measures: Gingivitis can be prevented by proper and consistent oral hygiene. Make sure to eat a balanced diet
    and visit the dentist regularly. Brush your teeth twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. Floss your teeth every day

II. Periodontitis

Periodontitis: It is a severe gum infection that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone that supports your teeth; this
leads to loss of the teeth.

  1. Symptoms: are Swollen or Puffy gums, Gums that feel tender when touched, gums that bleed easily, pus between teeth andgums & Loose teeth.
  2. Susceptible persons: Poor gum health, Poor oral hygiene, Smoking, Chewing tobacco, hormonal changes, including those that occur in adolescences and during pregnancy and menopause, Age, Substance abuse, Nutritional deficiencies, Obesity, Genetics, Some medications, especially those that cause dry mouth, Autoimmune disorders, HIV/AIDS, Cancer treatment, Diabetes, Rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease.
  3. Preventive measures: Daily brushing and flossing, avoid smoking, reduce stress, Balanced diet & Avoid clenching and grinding of teeth.

III. Cavities/Tooth Decay

Cavities/Tooth Decay: Cavities are permanently damaged areas in the hard surface of your teeth that develop into tiny openings or holes, these are world’s most common health problem., good oral and dental hygiene can help you avoid cavities.

  1. Symptoms: Toothache, spontaneous pain or pain that occurs with apparent cause. Tooth Sensitivity. Mild to sharp pain when eating or drinking sweet, hot or cold. Visible pits or holes in the teeth Pain when you bite down.
  2. Susceptible persons: Tooth location, Certain foods, and drinks, Frequent snacking or sipping, Bedtime infant feeding, Inadequate brushing. Not getting enough fluoride, Younger or older age, Dry mouth, worn fillings or dental devices, Heartburn,
    Eating disorders.
  3. Preventive measures: Brush with fluoride toothpaste after eating or drinking, rinse your mouth, visit your dentist regularly, Consider dental sealants, Drink some tap water, avoid frequent snacking and sipping, Eat tooth-healthy foods, Consider fluoride treatments, Ask about antibacterial treatments, Combined treatments.

IV. Oral Cancer/Mouth Cancer

Mouth cancer, or oral cancer, can occur anywhere in the mouth, on the surface of the tongue, the lips, inside the cheek, in the gums, in the roof and floor of the mouth, in the tonsils, and in the salivary glands.

  1. Symptoms: A Lip or mouth sore, a white or a reddish patch inside the mouth, Loose teeth, growth or lump inside the mouth, Painful swallowing.
  2. Susceptible persons: Smoking, Paan, Betel quid, Areca nut, Gutkha, Chaalia, Naswar, Toombak, Alcohol, HPV patients, Poor dental hygiene, leukoplakia, and erythroplakia.
  3. Preventive measures: Dietary factors (eating a well-balanced diet – high in whole fruits, vegetables, and fish and low in processed meats, rice, and refined grains – may reduce the risk of oral cancer

V. Fluorosis

Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition that affects teeth; it is caused by the overexposure to the fluoride during the first eight years of life. This is the time when most permanent teeth are formed, after the teeth come in, the teeth of those affected by fluorosis may appear mildly discolored

  1. Causes: A significant cause of fluorosis is the inappropriate use of fluoride-containing dental products such as toothpaste and mouth rinses.
  2. Susceptible: Enamel fluorosis is a defect in enamel development seen after exposure to excess fluoride during tooth formation. Much remains to be learned about the mechanisms by which fluoride affects enamel formation,
  3. Symptoms: is a common disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation and genetic problem also D.Prevention: Alternative water sources by removing excessive fluoride from drinking water

VI. Malocclusion

Malocclusion is a fancy word for a person’s upper and lower teeth not lining up with each other.

  1. Causes: Cleft lip or palate, Pacifier use past 3 years old, Bottle feeding into early childhood, Frequent thumb sucking into early childhood, Acute injuries to the jaw, mouth or jaw tumors, impacted teeth, Mouth breathing
  2. Susceptible: the Main reason people experience malocclusion is genetics; it can happen for several other reasons, like poor oral care.
  3. Prevention: Braces, Tooth, Reshaping teeth, Capping teeth, Bonding teeth, Jaw surgery, Wires and/or plates to keep the jaw stable

VII. Tongue diseases like hairy tongue

The tongue is used for tasting, swallowing, and chewing food. The tongue is also used to form words for speaking. Typically, a tongue that is pink and moist with a thin slightly white, shiny coating on the surface is considered healthy. There are variations of surface texture that are normal and healthy as well.

  1. Causes: There are many possible causes of tongue problems, ranging from harmless to severe. Individuals can be born with a tongue condition that is harmless.
  2. Susceptible: A more severe condition such as tongue cancer can be related to risk factors such as smoking and drinking alcohol. Additionally, a tongue problem may be a result of an underlying medical condition.
  3. Symptoms: Whitening of the tongue can occur when there is a build-up or coating of bacteria and debris on the surface of the tongue due to mild dehydration, illness (when there is less use of the tongue for talking or eating), or dryness of the mouth and psoriasis
  4. Prevention: To prevent psoriasis symptoms from flaring up, it can help to avoid triggers. For psoriasis on the tongue, a person can avoid spicy or very hot foods smoking, use mouth rinses, practice good oral hygiene